4.5.- Conclusions obtained from the three previous cases

From left to right we have the three previous cases. What we can see is that in all the cases temporal incisions resulted in a WTR surgically induced astigmatism which means that we are flattening the meridian of the incision. However, only when the steep meridian is in the horizontal (ATR) the SIA is significant, and when the steep meridian is in a oblique location we are also inducing some torque and this is the reason why the ellipse rotates in favour to the oblique locations
SIA calculator

BigSIA

The incision that is required for IOL implantation during cataract surgery induces astigmatism —this is referred to as surgically induced astigmatism (SIA)— so the total amount of astigmatism to be corrected with the toric IOL must consider the flattening (FE) or steepening (SE) effect on the meridian of the preoperative corneal astigmatism on which the IOL is going to be aligned. The SIA will depend on several factors, including incision type, location and size, and its design or architecture. 

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